Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of Korean.
By using 38 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism markers, the genetic structure of 195 Korean males was analyzed.
mt DNA haplogroup A which is widespread in Asia today occurs at levels below 10%, but reaches higher concentrations in some parts of China, Korea and Japan.
“Some ethnic Chinese populations, such as the Dong and the Yi, carry haplogroup A at levels as high as 30%.
Whereas pure haplogroup C3 (M217-no subclade) was observed at a high frequency among Tungusic (20%) and Koreanic (16%) populations.
The frequency of haplogroup C3 among Japanese was only 1%.
The most frequent haplogroup in Korean was Group VII (82.6%).
It was also the most frequent haplogroup in Chinese (95%) as well as in Japanese (45%).
The frequencies of the haplogroups V, IV, and X were 15.4%, 1%, and 1%, respectively.
Evidence is the haplogroup C3 (no subclade) occurs at moderately high frequencies among these populations.
The above mt DNA studies relate to maternal line gene flow, the following Y chromosome study of male-mediated gene flow shows a slightly different picture but the sharing of the common haplotypes still reveal strong affiliations of both Japanese and Koreans to the Chinese and of the Japanese to the Koreans: Population studies of genetic markers such as HLA variation and mitochondrial DNA have been used to understand human origins, demographic and migration history.