These immigrants were chiefly responsible for setting up gambier and pepper plantations in Malaya.
More Teochew immigrated to Johor at the encouragement of Temenggong Ibrahim in the 19th century, and many new towns were established and populated by plantation workers from the Chaoshan region.
as well as a high level of emigration in recent decades.The Malaysian Chinese population however have declined percentage-wise from the mid-20th century, down to 24.6% in the 2010 census, or around 6.4 million out of a total Malaysian population of 28.3 million.Department of Statistics in Malaysia estimated that the Chinese population in Malaysia would drop to 20 per cent by 2040 from 24.5 per cent in 2010.According to a report by the World Bank, the Malaysian diaspora around the world in 2010 numbered at around a million with most of them ethnic Chinese, and the main reasons for emigrating are better economic and career prospects abroad as well as a sense of social injustice within Malaysia.The first wave of Han Chinese settlers came during the Malacca Empire in the early 15th century.Chinese immigrants, mainly from the controlled ports of Fujian and Guangdong provinces, were attracted by the prospect of work in the tin mines and rubber plantations as well as the possibility of opening up new farmlands at the beginning of the 19th century until the 1930s in British Malaya.Some Nationalist refugees also fled to Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and Malaya after the Nationalists Kuomintang lost the civil war to avoid persecution or execution by the Communist party of China.The Hoklo people (福建闽南人) from Quanzhou, Amoy, and Zhangzhou is the largest Chinese language group in Malaysia.The first wave of Hoklo chinese settled primarily in Malacca where they are mostly concentrated, with some also in Penang. and formed the largest language group in many states.Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group in Malaysia after the ethnic Malay majority.They are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in Malaysia, Orang Cina in Malay, Sina-karan in Tamil and Huaren (Chinese people) or Huaqiao (Overseas Chinese) by Chinese themselves. Hokkien), Yue (Cantonese) and Hakka-speaking ancestry, and different towns and cities in Malaysia may be dominated by different Chinese dialects among Chinese speakers, for example Cantonese in Kuala Lumpur, and Hokkien in Penang; Mandarin however is now also widely used.