The city is mentioned as an existing city among other Kievan Rus cities, including Kiev, Kaniv, Zhytomyr and Ovruch.
The city was one of the centers of the Cossack movement.
During that time Cherkasy's Regiment was one of the most powerful military units and took part in all of the battles for Bohdan Khmelnytsky army.
After a successful campaign, Khmelnytsky in 1654 signed an alliance with Muscovy at Pereyaslav. Cherkasy remained part of Poland, but territories east of the Dnieper River including left-bank Ukraine and Zaporizhia were secured for Muscovy.
Summers are dry and warm (the average temperature in July is 19.8 °C (67.6 °F)), with occasional highs reaching 35 °C (95 °F).
In the 1360s, the city entered a new period in its development, by becoming a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The average temperature in the city is 7.7 °C (45.9 °F).
Winters are usually cold and snowy (the average January temperature is −5.9 °C (21.4 °F)), but the last few winters have been rather warm with rare severe frosts (up to −25 °C (−13 °F)).
There are few facts about the beginning of the city's life, but it is documented that Cherkasy existed in the 14th century.
The first record about Cherkasy was made in 1305 and was found in the Gustynskiy Chronicle, which is the Kievan Rus chronicle.