Each of the seventy-five tribes living in the country has its own dialects and language.
The main vernacular languages are Bemba, Lozi, Luanda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and Tumbuka. The background of the national flag is green, symbolic of the country's natural beauty, with three vertical stripes in the lower right corner.
The struggle against the federation soon turned into one for freedom as the independence fever swept across Africa.
Strikes by mine workers turned into a power base that formed the United National Independence Party (UNIP), led by Kenneth Kaunda.
It is a landlocked country with several large freshwater lakes, including Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru, Lake Bangweulu, and the largest man-made lake in Africa, Lake Kariba.
To fill jobs in the mines, Zambians came from all over the country and settled in urban areas.
Because of conflicts in the border countries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola, there has been a large influx of refugees in recent years. English is the official language as the country was once an English colony (1924–1964).
While many people speak English, in rural areas tribal languages are spoken, in addition to a few other vernacular languages.
In 1953 the British Colonial Office decided to unite Nyasaland (Malawi), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), and Northern Rhodesia into the Central African Federation.
There was strong opposition to the federation because a substantial amount of money was funneled out of Northern Rhodesia to support Southern Rhodesia.