Therefore all living tissue including textile plants such as flax and cotton will have the same ratio of C-14 to C12 that exists in the atmosphere--about 1:1 trillion.
Once an organism dies, the radioactive C-14 present gradually decays to become Nitrogen.
Last year, David Stoney listed the debunking of the Shroud as one of Dr.
At an area on the Sudarium which would have been at the back of the head, there are blood stains consistent with small punctures.
Yet, while the C-14 levels detected by the three laboratories are incontestable, conclusions based on the assumptions of the method are not as definite. Based on comparing the amount of vanillin in the fibres of cloth of known medieval origin with older cloth, Rogers concluded that the material used in the C-14 study of 1989 "was thus not part of the original cloth, and is invalid for determining the age of the Shroud." This sample tested by carbon dating came from a single sample cut from the edge of the Shroud in a section where the cloth was dyed, evidently as part of some medieval repair to match the colour of the original cloth: "The combined evidence from chemical kinetics, analytical chemistry, cotton content, and pyrolysisms proves that the material from the radiocarbon area of the Shroud is significantly different from that of the main cloth." Scientifically, the authors of the Nature paper were speaking beyond their competence when they claimed that "These results therefore provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is medieval." While Rogers' research does not discredit Raymond N.
Scientific critics of the '89 paper have pointed out that there could be biological contamination by either bacteria or fungi on the Shroud, throwing the C-14/C-12 balance awry. Rogers the C-14 results, it does point out the danger of extrapolating beyond the data, a constant danger for scientists.
Pollen previously removed from the place on the Shroud where floral images were subsequently found by Dr.
Whanger (1978) matched the identification of the floral images themselves.